|Proteomics and human medicine|
January 18, 2002
Here, GNN highlights five papers about proteomics and human medicine related to the feature Yeast Proteomics: Mapping protein interactions and complexes on a genomic scale.
This review summarizes the major activities in the field of protein microarray technology. A short summary of the theoretical concepts of miniaturized ligand binding assays explains why such microspot assays represent the most sensitive approaches for capture-target assays. The main focus of this review is centered on the applications using miniaturized and parallelized protein binding assays which rely on the product formation between immobilized capture molecules and their corresponding target molecules which are present in the sample. These types of ligand binding assays are useful tools for protein identification, quantification and protein affinity studies. Protein identification and quantification assays have a great potential in the field of diagnostics and proteomics where many different protein markers which are present in complex samples have to be analyzed in parallel. Protein affinity assays can be used to analyze interactions between proteins such as antibodies, receptors or enzymes with other proteins, peptides, low molecular weight compounds, oligosaccharides or DNA. Different applications of protein microarray-based assays and their huge potential for diagnostic and proteomic approaches will be discussed.
Front Biosci 2002 Jan 1;7:C13-32.
The dawn of the post-genome era is leading to extraordinary opportunities in biomedicine. Our group has embarked on a major effort to integrate genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics for the profiling of tumor tissues, an approach we refer to as operomics. Our major goals are the molecular classification of tumors and the identification of markers for the early detection of cancer. Molecular analyses of tumors rely on microdissected tissues, which are simultaneously investigated for genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic changes. Genomic alterations in tumor cells being investigated include deletions, amplifications and methylation changes across the entire genome as well as point mutations in specific genes. Expression analysis at the RNA level is being undertaken using oligonucleotide and cDNA based microarrays. An important aspect of our approach is the large-scale identification and quantitative analysis of tumor proteins in whole cell lysates as well as in protein compartments. Protein separation strategies include two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography. Specific protein subsets, of interest include membrane proteins, secreted proteins and antigenic proteins as sources of biomarkers for early detection of cancer. Our current approach is illustrated with findings stemming from our studies of human gliomas.
Proteomics 2002 Jan;2(1):69-75.
Proteomic methods have been used to monitor changes in protein synthesis in the first 4 h following stimulation of human lung fibroblasts with endothelin-1. Using pulsed [(35)S]methionine labeling, about 70 proteins with altered protein synthesis could be detected, and the 35 proteins showing the largest changes were identified by mass spectrometry. The observed proteins included unexpected proteins such as Sox5, two isoforms of Rab14, Rab3A, translationally controlled tumor protein, and one protein of previously unknown function. There was a wide range of different kinetic behavior, and groups of functionally linked proteins such as Rab14, nucleophosmin,and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B could be detected from similar kinetics. We propose that the functional proteomic methods are competitive with and have some advantages compared to expression profiling methods for monitoring gene expression.
Biochemistry 2002 Jan 22;41(3):1070-8.
The inner ear, one of the most complex organs, contains within its bony shell three sensory systems, the evolutionary oldest gravity receptor system, the three semicircular canals for the detection of angular acceleration, and the auditory system -- unrivaled in sensitivity and frequency discrimination. All three systems are susceptible to a host of afflictions affecting the quality of life for all of us. In the first part of this review we present an introduction to the milestones of inner ear research to pave the way for understanding the complexities of a proteomics approach to the ear. Minute sensory structures, surrounded by large fluid spaces and a hard bony shell, pose extreme challenges to the ear researcher. In spite of these obstacles, a powerful preparatory technique was developed, whereby precisely defined microscopic tissue elements can be isolated and analyzed, while maintaining the biochemical state representative of the in vivo conditions. The second part consists of a discussion of proteomics as a tool in the elucidation of basic and pathologic mechanisms, diagnosis of disease, as well as treatment. Examples are the organ of Corti proteins OCP1 and OCP2, oncomodulin, a highly specific calcium-binding protein, and several disease entities, Meniere's disease, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, and perilymphatic fistula.
Dis Markers 2001;17(4):259-70.
Nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) has been used for many years as a potential non-invasive method to identify markers for breast cancer risk or early detection. Because individual markers have not been optimal, we are exploring the use of surface enhanced laser desorption and ionization time of flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry to identify patterns of proteins that might define a proteomic signature for breast cancer. SELDI-TOF was used to analyze a study set of NAF samples that included 12 women with breast cancer and 15 healthy controls (the latter included three women with an abnormal mammogram but subsequent normal biopsy). In this preliminary report, we present data showing that SELDI analysis of NAF is rapid, reproducible, and capable of identifying protein signatures that appear to differentiate NAF samples from breast cancer patients and healthy controls, including those with an abnormal mammogram who were later proven to be biopsy normal.
Dis Markers 2001;17(4):301-7.
. . .