The protein complex network, and grouping of connected complexes. Links were established between complexes sharing at least one protein. For clarity, proteins found in more than nine complexes were omitted. The graphs were generated automatically by a relaxation algorithm that finds a local minimum in the distribution of nodes by minimizing the distance of connected nodes and maximizing distance of unconnected nodes. In the upper panel, cellular roles of the individual complexes (ascribed in Supplementary Information Table S3) are colour coded: red, cell cycle; dark green, signalling; dark blue, transcription, DNA maintenance, chromatin structure; pink, protein and RNA transport; orange, RNA metabolism; light green, protein synthesis and turnover; brown, cell polarity and structure; violet, intermediate and energy metabolism; light blue, membrane biogenesis and traffic. The lower panel is an example of a complex (yeast TAP-C212) linked to two other complexes (yeast TAP-C77 and TAP-C110) by shared components. It illustrates the connection between the protein and complex levels of organization. Red lines indicate physical interactions as listed in YPD22.