Fracture repair using modified stem cells. 1a and 2a) 3-dimensional reconstruction of a mouse forelimb 2 months after receiving MSC transplants. 1a) Repair of a 2.5mm fracture in a mouse whose transplanted MSCs carried an active BMP-2 gene. 2a) Mice that were fed the antibiotic doxycycline inhibited BMP-2 in the MSCs and could not repair the fracture. 1b and 2b) Simulated X-ray images showing the healed and unhealed bones.

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