Pathogen-regulated gene expression in human monocyte-derived DCs. (A) Overlapping sets of E. coli-, C. albicans-,and influenza-regulated genes. Numbers in the overlapping region of the Venn diagram represent common regulated genes. Numbers of pathogen-specific genes are shown inside the stippled circles. Some pathogen-specific genes are also found in the common group but are much more strongly regulated in one pathogen than in others. (B) Representation of mRNA expression levels at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours in response to E. coli and C. albicans. Each gene is represented by a single row of colored bars, and each time point is represented by a single column. Color bars represent the ratio of hybridization measurements between corresponding time points in the pathogen and control medium profiles, according to the scale shown. Genes are placed in groups corresponding to pairwise overlaps shown in accompanying Venn diagrams. From top to bottom: E. coli- but not C. albicans-regulated genes; common regulated genes; C. albicans- but not E. coli-regulated genes. (C) Gene profiles and overlaps for E. coli and Influenza. (D and E) Gene expression of common response genes and differential response genes in three independent donors.