Minimum-spanning networks showing genetic relationships among mtDNA dog haplotypes of phylogenetic clades A, B, and C. Haplotypes (circles) are separated by one mutational step, ignoring indels. Black dots are hypothetical intermediates. Uncolored squares are wolf haplotypes. (A) Haplotypes found in East Asia, Europe, and Southwest Asia are indicated in separate networks with orange, blue, and green, respectively. The sizes of colored circles are proportional to haplotype frequency in the respective populations. Small uncolored circles denote haplotypes not found in the regional population. Subclusters of clade A discussed in the main text, three in the East Asian and one in the European network, are marked by red lines. (B) Haplotypes shared between and unique to East and West, respectively. Circles denote haplotypes found in both East and West (white), unique to West (blue), unique to West and two steps from Eastern types (dark blue), unique to East (orange), unique to East and two steps from Western types (red), and unique to East and three or more steps from Western types (red with bold lining).