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A quick guide to...Sequenced Genomes.

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Haemophilus ducreyi (Bacteria)
This bacterium causes the disease chancroid, which leads to painful ulcers but can be treated with antibiotics. The bacterium can be transmitted sexually, and researchers are investigating its role in facilitating the transmission of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.
» Sequenced by: The Institute for Systems Biology and Ohio State University H. ducreyi 35000HP Unpublished
» Image: Courtesy Bob Munson, Ohio State University
Haemophilus influenzae and circular genome map.
Haemophilus influenzae (Bacteria)
In 1995, this bacterium was the first organism to have its genome completely sequenced. The bacterium causes a potentially fatal illness that is now largely controlled in countries that vaccinate children. It was discovered during a flu pandemic in 1890 and mistakenly thought to be the cause.
» Sequenced by: TIGR H. influenzae Rd Abstract
» Related GNN Article: Sequencing the genome of Haemophilus influenzae Rd
Owens Lake, California. Pink coloration is caused by halobacteria living in a thin layer of brine on the surface of the lake bed. Courtesy Tony Phillips.
Halobacterium (Archaea)
Halobacteria are responsible for the bright pink or red appearance of the Dead Sea and other bodies of salt water. The organisms live in environments that have high concentrations of salt, including salt flats. They are also found on salted fish, salted hides, bacon, and sausage.

» Sequenced by: University of Massachusetts/University of Washington Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 Abstract
» Related GNN article: Some like it salty: Halobacterium genome sequenced
» Image: Courtesy Tony Phillips
Helicobacter hepaticus (Bacteria)
In 1992, this bacterium caused an epidemic of liver tumors in laboratory mice at the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, Maryland. It also causes chronic hepatitis in mice and is related to the bacterium that can cause ulcers and stomach cancer in people, Helicobacter pylori.

» Sequenced by: MWG The Genomic Company, Universität Würzberg, Massachusetts Institute of Technology & Genedata H. hepaticus ATCC 51449 Abstract
Helicobacter pylori a flagellated, highly motile gastric pathogen. Courtesy Torkel Wadstrom.
Helicobacter pylori (Bacteria)
More than half of the world's population is infected with this bacterium. Many of these people will never experience any symptoms related to the infection, but the organism is a leading cause of ulcers and a risk factor for stomach cancer. It can remain in the body for life.

» Sequenced by: TIGR H. pylori 26695 Abstract
H. pylori J99 Abstract
» Related GNN articles: Life on the Inside: Surveying the diversity of H. pylori genomes in one man’s stomach
Stomach Bug
» Image: Courtesy Torkel Wadström
Homo sapiens
Homo sapiens (Eukaryota)
Two Independent drafts of the human genome sequence were published simultaneously in 2001 by researchers at Celera Genomics in Rockville, Maryland, and the international Human Genome Project. Both groups reported that humans have about 35,000 genes, but today the estimate is closer to 25,000 genes.

» Sequenced by: Celera Genomics  Abstract
International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium  Abstract
» Related GNN articles:
Humans and Mice Together at Last: Scientists compare mouse chromosome 16 to the human genome
One Gene, Many Proteins:Ultimately it will be necessary to measure mRNA in specific cell types to demonstrate the presence of a gene

Kluyveromyces lactis (Eukaryota)
This yeast is commonly used in genetics research and could potentially be used to produce drug compounds. The organism was sequenced as part of a study that compared five species of yeast.

» Sequenced in 2004 by Institut Pasteur and others K. lactis Abstract
» Image: Courtesy Linda Silveira, University of Redlands, California
Kluyveromyces waltii (Eukaryota)
This yeast was sequenced to learn about the evolution of a related species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is used in laboratories around the world to study genetics and explore basic questions in biology.

» Sequenced by: The Broad Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University Abstract
» Related GNN article: Baker’s Yeast and Fungus Provide Clues to Evolution
Lactobacillus johnsonii (Bacteria)
The food company Nestlé sequenced this bacterium, which lives in our intestines and may protect against harmful microbes. Nestlé puts the organism in a yogurt-like dairy product called LC1, which, according to the company, strengthens the body's natural defenses and keeps the bowel healthy.

» Sequenced by: Nestlé Research Center L. johnsonii NCC 533 Abstract
» Image courtesy of the Nestlé Research Center
Lactobacillus plantarum (Bacteria)
This bacterium produces lactic acid and lives in many environments, including some foods, saliva, and the human gastrointestinal tract. Researchers are studying whether the microbe can be used to deliver vaccines and other therapeutic compounds to people.

» Sequenced by: Wageningen Centre for Food Sciences & Greenomics L. plantarum WCFS1 Abstract
» Image: Wageningen Centre for Food Sciences
Lactococcus lactis. Courtesy Kim Holmstrom.
Lactococcus lactis (Bacteria)
One of the most important microorganisms in the dairy industry, this bacterium produces lactic acid and is used to make cheeses, buttermilk and yogurt, among other products. In nature, the organism is found on some plants and in the gastrointestinal tracts of animals that eat those plants.

» Sequenced by: Genoscope & INRA L. lactis ssp. lactis IL1403 Abstract
» Related GNN article: French scientists sequence the genome of a bacterium vital for cheese production
» Image: Courtesy Kim Holmstrøm
Legionella pneumophila (Bacteria)
The name of this bacterium and an illness it causes, Legionnaires’ disease, honors 29 people who died from an outbreak of fatal pneumonia at an American Legion convention in 1976. The bacterium lives in water all over the world, including drinking water, and can survive harsh chemicals that kill other microbes. Most people are resistant to infection.

» L. pneumophila Philadelphia 1 sequenced in 2004 by Columbia Genome Center
» L. pneumophila Paris sequenced in 2004 by Institut Pasteur
» L. pneumophila Lens sequenced in 2004 by Institut Pasteur
» Image: Christopher Pericone.
Leifsonia xyli (Bacteria)
This bacterium infects sugarcane and causes ratoon stunting disease, which destroys fifteen percent of the world’s crop. The insidious disease is hard to diagnose, and farmers may not know their fields are infected. The bacteria can travel among fields on sugarcane knives and harvesting machines.

» L. xyli subspecies xyli sequenced in 2004 by FAPESP
» Image: P.R. Gagliardi and E. Kitajima, University of Sao Paulo School of Agriculture.
Electron micrograph of Leptospira interrogans. Credit: CDC/NCID/HIP/Janice Carr.
Leptospira interrogans (Bacteria)
Most common in tropical areas, this spiral-shaped bacterium propels itself by twisting back and forth. It infects animals, and people can become infected through contact with animal urine or contaminated soil or water. Infection can cause mild symptoms or a more serious disease known as leptospirosis.

» Sequenced by: Chinese National Human Genome Center L. interrogans serovar lai 56601 Abstract
» Image: CDC/NCID/HIP/Janice Carr.
Circular genome map of Listeria innocua.
Listeria innocua (Bacteria)
A harmless cousin of the bacterium that contaminates food and causes listeriosis, this organism was sequenced to learn about its lethal relative, Listeria monocytogenes. Both species can survive a range of environmental conditions, including high concentrations of salt.

» Sequenced by: Institut Pasteur & NCBI L. innocua Clip11262 Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes. Courtesy Dirk Heinz.
Listeria monocytogenes (Bacteria)
This bacterium contaminates food and can cause the disease listeriosis. Pasteurization and cooking kill the microbe, but some fatal cases of listeriosis have occurred because foods such as deli meats were contaminated after they were cooked but before they were packaged.

» Sequenced by: EC Consortium & NCBI L. monocytogenes EGD-e Abstract
» Sequenced by: TIGR L. monocytogenes F2365 Abstract
» Related GNN articles: Listeria genome sequence as basis for improving food safety
Genetic code for Listeria bacterium discovered
» Image: Courtesy Dirk Heinz
Magnaporthe grisea (Eukaryota)
This fungus causes blast disease in rice, which destroys enough crops to feed 60 million people annually. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention considers the fungus a potential biological weapon because of the damage it could do to one of the world's staples.

» Sequenced by: International Rice Blast Genome Consortium & Whitehead Institute for Genome Research M. grisea Press release
» Related GNN article: Fighting blast disease: Rice pathogen sequenced
» Image: Courtesy Richard J. Howard, DuPont Crop Genetics, Wilmington, Delaware. With permission, from the Annual Review of Microbiology, Volume 50 ©1996 by Annual Reviews
Mannheimia succiniciproducens (Bacteria)
This bacterium lives inside the stomachs of cows and helps them digest grasses. It also produces a chemical used in the manufacturing of plastics and other products. Some scientists think that the organism could one day produce the chemical, called succinic acid, for manufacturers.

» M. succiniciproducens MBEL55E sequenced in 2004 by Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology Abstract
» Image: Keith Weller. Courtesy Agricultural Resesearch Service.
Mesoplasma florum (Bacteria)
This bacterium has very few genes and was sequenced as part of a project on synthetic microbes at the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at MIT. Scientists there are trying to create synthetic organisms that might someday be used to manufacture drugs or produce hydrogen for energy.

» Sequenced in 2004 by Broad Institute
» Image: Courtesy Tom Knight, MIT
Root nodule of Lotus japonicus plant formed by symbiosis with Mesorhizobium loti. Courtesy Kazuhiko Saeki.
Mesorhizobium loti (Bacteria)
This microbe belongs to a family of bacteria that helps plants by converting nitrogen from the atmosphere into ammonia that can be used by the plants, including crops such as soybeans and peas. The conversion takes place inside nodules on the roots of the plants.

» Sequenced by: Kazusa DNA Research Institute M. loti MAFF303099 Abstract
» Image: Courtesy Kazuhiko Saeki
Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. Courtesy Charles Hagedorn.
Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum (Archaea)
Found in sewage and other places, this microbe can convert human and agricultural waste into methane, and it survives relatively high temperatures. The sequenced strain was isolated from a municipal waste-treatment facility in Champaign, Illinois.

» Sequenced by: Genome Therapeutics & Ohio State University M. thermoautotrophicum delta H Abstract
» Related GNN article: Methane-producing microbes dominate in hot spring
» Image: Courtesy Charles Hagedorn.
Methanococcoides burtonii (Archaea)
This microbe is named for the Australian scientist Harry Burton, who discovered it at the bottom of Ace Lake in Antarctica. As one of the first species of archaea isolated in a permanently cold place and sequenced, it could help scientists understand how life exists in extreme environments.

» Sequenced by: Joint Genome Institute M. burtonii Abstract
» Related GNN article: Extremophiles, Antarctica, and Extraterrestrial Life
» Image: Courtesy M.Rohde, GBF, Braunschweig, Germany
Methanococcus jannaschii. Copyright UC Berkeley Electron Microscope Lab.
Methanococcus jannaschii (Archaea)
Discovered near a hydrothermal vent off the coast of Mexico in 1982, this microbe was the first “extremophile” to be sequenced. Temperatures at these vents approach the boiling point of water, and the pressure could crush an ordinary submarine.

» Sequenced by: TIGR M. jannaschii DSM 2661 Abstract
» Related GNN article: The First Sequenced Extremophile: What scientists have learned from the M. jannaschii genome
» Image: © UC Berkeley Electron Microscope Lab
Methanococcus maripaludis (Archaea)
This microbe lives in salt marshes on the coast of Georgia and other places, where it produces methane. Able to grow in the laboratory, the organism is used to study methane-producing microbes, or methanogens. The name maripaludis comes from the Latin for “sea” and “marsh.”

» Sequenced by: University of Washington Genome Center
» Image: Courtesy B. Whitman/University of Georgia
Methanogenium frigidum (Archaea)
In the Vestfold Hills of Antarctica, this microbe was found living at the bottom of Ace Lake, where there is no oxygen or sunlight and the temperature is about O°C (33°F). The organism also lives in deep-sea trenches, and it produces methane.

» Sequenced by: Australian Genome Research Facility & Amersham Biosciences M. frigidum Abstract
» Related GNN article: Extremophiles, Antarctica, and Extraterrestrial Life
» Image: Courtesy Henry Aldrich, University of Florida
Methanopyrus kandleri. Courtesy K.O. Stetter, R. Huber & R. Rachel, University of Regensburg, Germany.
Methanopyrus kandleri (Archaea)
One of the most heat-tolerant organisms known, this microbe lives at temperatures near the boiling point of water. It was originally isolated from the ocean floor at the base of a “black smoker” chimney in the Gulf of California.

» Sequenced by: Fidelity Systems, Inc. M. kandleri AV19 Abstract
» Related GNN article: The genome of the hyperthermophile Methanopyrus kandleri
» Image: Courtesy K.O. Stetter, R. Huber & R. Rachel, University of Regensburg, Germany
M. acetivorans. Courtesy Everly Conway de Macario.
Methanosarcina acetivorans (Archaea)
A potential player in global warming, this microbe breaks down the waste products of other organisms and releases methane gas into the atmosphere. It may be the most versatile methane-producing microbe and subsists on diverse sources of energy, including acetate.

» Sequenced by: Whitehead Institute M. acetivorans C2A Abstract
» Related GNN article: Key player in global warming: M. acetivorans is sequenced
» Image: Courtesy Everly Conway de Macario
Circular genome map of Methanosarcina mazei.
Methanosarcina mazei (Archaea)
Found in soil and rice paddies, among other places, this microbe produces methane and may have picked up genes from bacteria over the course of evolution.

» Sequenced by: Göttingen Genomics Laboratory M. mazei Goe1 Abstract
Circular genome map of Methanosarcina mazei.
Methylococcus capsulatus (Bacteria)
Found in soil and peat bogs, this bacterium consumes methane gas for energy. Scientists are investigating whether this bacterium could someday be used to reduce methane emissions and thereby reduce greenhouse gases.

» M. capsulatus Bath sequenced in 2004 by TIGR Abstract
» Image: Courtesy TIGR
Mus musculus (Eukaryota)
Used in the laboratory for decades to study biology and human genetics, mice have versions of nearly every human gene. Many genes in mice reside in blocks that correspond to blocks in the human genome, and the DNA sequences within corresponding blocks tend to be similar.

» Sequenced by: International Consortium M. musculus Abstract
» Related GNN articles: Mouse in the House: Scientists compare mouse and human genomes
Humans and Mice Together at Last: Scientists compare mouse chromosome 16 to the human genome
Mycobacterium bovis (Bacteria)
One of the greatest threats to agriculture worldwide, this bacterium causes tuberculosis in cattle and other animals, including buffalo, lions, and antelope. Its genome is very similar to that of the bacterium that causes tuberculosis in people, Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

» Sequenced by: Sanger Institute & Institut Pasteur M. bovis AF2122/97 Abstract
» Image: Courtesy Jack Dykinga/USDA
Mycobacterium leprae. Courtesy Heinz Kutzner, Dermatologie Pathologie.
Mycobacterium leprae (Bacteria)
The bacterium that causes leprosy reproduces very slowly—it takes nearly two weeks for a cell to divide—and will only grow in certain environments. For the genome project, researchers grew the bacteria in an armadillo and harvested the microbe’s DNA for sequencing.

» Sequenced by: Sanger Institute M. leprae TN Abstract
» Related GNN article: Genome of bacterium that causes leprosy is sequenced
» Image: Courtesy Heinz Kutzner, Dermatologie Pathologie
Courtesy Johne's Testing Center, School
Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (Bacteria)
This bacterium lives in the intestines of cows and other hoofed animals. It can lie dormant in cows for years and spread to other animals through contaminated milk or manure, eventually causing a fatal illness called Johne’s disease.

» Sequenced by: University of Minnesota & USDA's National Animal Disease Center M. paratuberculosis K-10 Unpublished
» Related GNN article: Mapping the genome of a cattle killer
» Image: Courtesy Johne's Testing Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Copyright International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Bacteria)
Over the course of human history the bacterium that causes tuberculosis has killed millions. The microbe has been found in the tissues of ancient mummies, and in recent decades strains that are resistant to drugs have emerged. One person in three worldwide carries the bacterium in its latent form.

» Sequenced by: TIGR M. tuberculosis CDC 1551 Abstract
Sanger Institute M. tuberculosis H37Rv (lab strain) Abstract
» Related GNN article: Fighting tuberculosis one gene at a time
» Image: © 2000, International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care
Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Bacteria)
A major health problems for the poultry industry, this bacterium causes a chronic respiratory disease in chickens and other fowl. The disease affects the production of eggs and can spread quickly through an entire flock.

» Sequenced by: University of Connecticut M. gallisepticum R In Press
» Related GNN article: The Stuff That Finches are Made of
» Image: Courtesy Keith Weller/USDA
Mycoplasma genitalium. Courtesy K. Frantz, A. Albay and K. Bott, University of North  Carolina.
Mycoplasma genitalium (Bacteria)
This bacterium infects the male and female reproductive tracts and in 1995 became only the second organism to have its genome completely sequenced. It has about 500 genes and belongs to the family of Mycoplasma bacteria, which includes parasites that have very small genomes.

» Sequenced by: TIGR M. genitalium G-37 Abstract
» Image: Courtesy K. Frantz, A. Albay and K. Bott, University of North Carolina
Mycoplasma mobile (Bacteria)
Known for its ability to glide across surfaces, this bacterium was isolated from a fresh-water fish called the tench. Like other species of Mycoplasma bacteria, it has relatively few genes and was sequenced in part to learn more about how an organism can live with so few genes.

» Sequenced in 2004 by Broad Institute
» Image: Courtesy Renate Rosengarten, University of Veterinary Medicine of Vienna, Austria
Mycoplasma mycoides(Bacteria)
This bacterium causes a highly contagious respiratory disease that is a leading killer of cattle in Africa. The disease, known as BCPP, is also a problem in Asia and has occurred in Southern Europe, making it a global threat to cattle. The bacterium also infects buffalo.

» Sequenced by: Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC Type Strain PGI (T) Abstract
» Image: Courtesy F. Thiaucourt, CIRAD-EMVT
M.penetrans infects to tracheal epithelium. Courtesy Yuko Sasaki.
Mycoplasma penetrans (Bacteria)
During the 1990s this bacterium was primarily found among individuals infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. But it now appears that the bacterium can cause infections of the urogenital and respiratory tracts among individuals who are not carriers of HIV.

» Sequenced by: NIID & Kitasato University M. penetrans HF-2 Abstract
» Image: Courtesy Yuko Sasaki
Circular genome map Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Bacteria)
This bacterium infects the human respiratory tract and causes pneumonia-like symptoms in some individuals. It has relatively few genes and is used by researchers to learn about how organisms with “minimal” genomes survive in the world.

» Sequenced by: University of Heidelberg M. pneumoniae M129 Abstract
Mycoplasma pulmonis. Courtesy mycoplasma-experience.
Mycoplasma pulmonis (Bacteria)
A cause of respiratory infections in mice and rats, this bacterium is used in the laboratory to study how respiratory infections occur. It belongs to the family of Mycoplasma bacteria, which are parasites that have small genomes and infect people and animals.

» Sequenced by: Genoscope M. pulmonis UAB CTIP Abstract
» Related GNN article: Mycoplasma pulmonis: The genome of a minimalist
» Image: Courtesy mycoplasma-experience
Mycoplasma pulmonis. Courtesy mycoplasma-experience.
Nanoarchaeum equitans (Archaea)
Researchers discovered this microbe while looking through the microscope at a larger microbe they collected from an undersea vent near Iceland. The smaller organism, which has one of the smallest sequenced genomes, lives as a parasite on the larger one, called Ignicoccus. It also lives in hot springs at Yellowstone National Park in California.

» Sequenced by: Diversa Corporation N.equitans Abstract
» Related GNN article: Genome of Undersea Microbe Surfaces
» Image: Courtesy H. Huber, M. Hohn, R. Rachel & K.O. Stetter, University of Regensburg, Germany.
Neisseria meningitidis. Copyright Aventis Pasteur.
Neisseria meningitidis (Bacteria)
This bacterium infects the lining of the human spinal cord and the brain and can cause the disease meningitis. It can also cause life-threatening infections in blood. Two strains have been sequenced—one found in Sub-Saharan Africa, the other in Europe and the United States.

» Sequenced by: TIGR N. meningitidis strain MC58 (serogroup B) Abstract
Sanger Institute N. meningitidis Z2491 (serogroup A) Abstract
» Related GNN articles:
Learning our ABCs: The bacteria that cause meningitis
Bacteria use quick-switch genes to dodge host defenses
New genome sequence focuses search for type B meningitis vaccine
» Image: © Aventis Pasteur
Neurospora crassa. Courtesy Patrick C. Hickey, University of Edinburgh.
Neurospora crassa (Eukaryota)
For more than sixty years scientists have used this fungus, a common bread mold, to explore basic questions in biology. Experiments done on this yeast in 1941 led to the theory that a single gene makes a single protein. The organism is now used to study circadian rhythms, among other things.

» Sequenced by: Whitehead Institute Center for Genome Research Abstract
» Related GNN articles: Mighty Mold is Sequenced
Neurospora genome to be sequenced thanks to grant from National Science Foundation
» Image: Courtesy Patrick C. Hickey, University of Edinburgh
EM image of Nitrosomonas europaea. Courtesy Electron Microscopy Facility at Oregon State University.
Nitrosomonas europaea (Bacteria)
A potential player in global warming, this bacterium produces a form of nitrogen used by plants and also breaks down some pollutants. It lives, among other places, in soil, sewage, and on the walls of buildings and the surfaces of monuments, especially in polluted urban areas.

» Sequenced by: Joint Genome Institute N. europaea OR74A Abstract
» Image: Courtesy Electron Microscopy Facility at Oregon State University
EM image of Nitrosomonas europaea. Courtesy Electron Microscopy Facility at Oregon State University.
Nocardia farcinica (Bacteria)
This bacterium causes a rare but potentially fatal disease known as nocardiosis. The microbe infects the lungs and central nervous system of people and some animals. It lives in soil, and people typically become infected by inhaling the organism or through a cut on the skin.

» N. farcinica sequenced in 2004 by NIID, Japan, and Kitasato University
» Image: Courtesy NIID

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