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Oceanobacillus iheyensis (Bacteria)
Discovered in 1998 in mud from the sea floor near Okinawa, Japan, this bacterium can live in extremely salty environments. It has enzymes that could potentially be used as additives in laundry detergent. Its name means “small ocean bacillus pertaining to the Iheya Ridge.”

» Sequenced by: Japan Marine Science and Technology Center O. iheyensis HTE831 Abstract
» Related GNN article: Japanese extremophile, O. iheyensis, from the deep sea
» Image: Courtesy Japan Marine Science and Technology Center
Honghe Hani Terraces, a miracle of rice farming, are located in Southwestern China, Yunnan Province, Yuanyang County. Photo by Ma Liwen, Courtesy of Qiu BaoXing. (Science).
Onions yellows phytoplasma (Bacteria)
This bacterium causes a yellowing disease in onions. The microbe is a parasite that lives inside leafhopper insects (pictured here) and spreads to plants through the saliva of feeding insects. Its genes have dwindled in number over the course of evolution.

» Sequenced by: University of Tokyo Onions yellows OY Abstract
» Image: Courtesy Keiji Morishima.
Honghe Hani Terraces, a miracle of rice farming, are located in Southwestern China, Yunnan Province, Yuanyang County. Photo by Ma Liwen, Courtesy of Qiu BaoXing. (Science).
Oryza sativa (Eukaryota)
A food staple for much of the world’s population, rice comes in different varieties. Two strains were sequenced in 2002, the japonica (popular in Japan) and the indica (grown in China). An international consortium is working on a third rice genome sequence that will be the gold standard.

» Sequenced by: Syngenta and Myriad Genetics O. sativa L. ssp. indica Abstract
Syngenta O. sativa L. ssp. japonica Abstract
» Related GNN article:
Two Groups Sequence Rice: Combining draft sequences may accelerate completion of finished genome
» Image: Photo by Ma Liwen, Courtesy of Qiu BaoXing. (Science)
Pan troglodytes (Eukaryota)
The chimpanzee is the most closely related species to humans. People and chimps have 98 percent of their genomes in common. But the remaining two percent of DNA may explain, among other things, why humans developed language and why chimpanzees do not get AIDS or Alzheimer’s disease.

» Sequenced in 2004 by The Broad Institute and Washington University Genome Sequencing Center.
» News about Chimpanzees
» Image courtesy Save the Chimps.
Artist's rendition of an exploding Pasteurella multocida, showing a single circular chromosome and microarray analysis. Courtesy Lisa Herron and Vivek Kapur.
Pasteurella multocida (Bacteria)
This bacterium causes a range of human and animal diseases, including cholera in birds, hemorrhagic septicemia in cattle, and atrophic rhinitis in swine. Humans are typically infected through dog and cat bites, and infections can lead to swelling and arthritis around joints.

» Sequenced by: University of Minnesota P. multocida Pm70 Abstract
» Related GNN article: Genome sequence of Pasteurella multocida
» Image: Courtesy Lisa Herron and Vivek Kapur
Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Eukaryota)
Known as white rot, this fungus lives on fallen trees and the forest floor. It plays a role in the global carbon cycle by degrading a substance in plants called lignin. It also degrades toxic chemicals and could potentially be used to clean up hazardous waste.

» Sequenced by: JGI P. chrysosporium RP78 Abstract
» Image: Courtesy Tom Kuster/Forest Products Lab
Artist's rendition of an exploding Pasteurella multocida, showing a single circular chromosome and microarray analysis. Courtesy Lisa Herron and Vivek Kapur.
Photorhabdus luminescens (Bacteria)
This bacterium lives in the guts of microscopic worms that invade insects. Once a worm burrows into an insect, the bacterium releases toxins that kill the insect. The bacterium then produces antibiotics that keep other microbes from appropriating the insect cadaver.

» Sequenced by: Institut Pasteur P. luminescens TT01 Abstract
» Image: Courtesy N. Boemare

Picrophilus torridus (Archaea)
Found in soil heated by underground volcanic activity, this microbe was isolated in Northern Japan in the 1990s. It lives at temperatures around 50°C (122°F) in some of the most acidic conditions known to support life. The word torridus roughly means “burnt and dried.”

» Sequenced in 2004 by University Goettingen P. torridus DSM 9790
» Image: Courtesy Wolfgang Liebl, University of Goettingen
Plasmodium falciparum (Eukaryota)
This parasite causes malaria and kills millions each year, many of whom are children in Sub-Saharan Africa. It lives in blood and is spread from person to person through mosquito bites. A growing number of strains are resistant to an inexpensive malaria drug, chloroquine.

» Sequenced by: Malaria Genome Project Consortium (TIGR, The Sanger Institute, Stanford University) P. falciparum 3D7 Abstract
» Related GNN article: The Parasite and the Mosquito: Malaria's deadly partners are sequenced
Plasmodium yoelii yoelii (Eukaryota)
Originally isolated from an African thicket rat some 40 years ago, this parasite is one of four that cause malaria in rodents. Used by malaria researchers in the laboratory, the parasite infects rats, mice, and hamsters.

» Sequenced by: TIGR P. yoelii yoelii Abstract
» Related GNN article: The Parasite and the Mosquito: Malaria's deadly partners are sequenced
Populus trichocarpa (Eukaryota)
The poplar, also known as the black cottonwood, was the first tree to be sequenced. Poplars are used to make plywood and crates, among other products, and have been planted near water-treatment plants and dairy farms because they can absorb wastewater. The sequenced DNA came from a female poplar in Washington State.

» P. trichocarpa sequenced in 2004 by DOE
» Image Courtesy: Bioenergy at ORNL
Porphyromonas gingivalis (Bacteria)
A leading cause of periodontal disease, this bacterium produces enzymes that contribute to the destruction of gum tissue and bone that supports the teeth. It also infects the mouths of animals other than humans.

» Sequenced by: TIGR P. gingivalis W83 Abstract
» Image: Courtesy Tsute Chen/The Forsyth Institute
Prochlorococcus marinus (Bacteria)
This marine bacterium is among the most abundant organisms in the ocean. An important player in the global carbon cycle, it derives energy from sunlight and comes in two forms. One lives near the ocean surface, where sunlight is plentiful; the other lives in deeper waters with less sunlight.

» Sequenced by: Genoscope and Station Biologique de Roscoff P. marinus CCMP1375 (SS120) Abstract
Joint Genome Institute P. marinus pastoris CCMP1378 (MED4) Abstract
Joint Genome Institute P. marinus MIT9313 Abstract
» Image: Courtesy Claire Ting
Propionibacterium acnes (Bacteria)
This bacterium causes acne vulgaris, more commonly known as pimples. A ubiquitous inhabitant of human skin, the bacterium is thought to cause pimples when pores become clogged by excess oil and dead skin cells. It is also associated with corneal ulcers and gallstones.

» P. acnes strain KPA171202 sequenced in 2004 by Göttingen Genomics Laboratory Abstract
» Image: Courtesy CDC
Protochlamydia amoebophila (Bacteria)
Known as environmental chlamydiae, this bacterium lives inside amoebae found in soil, water, and air. Until the 1990s, no one knew this type of bacterium existed. It is related to bacteria that cause pneumonia and venereal disease, and it may be an overlooked human pathogen.

» Sequenced in 2004 by Technische Universität München P. amoebophila UWE25
» Image: Courtesy Matthias Horn, University of Vienna
Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Copyright James A. Sullivan, CELLS alive!
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Bacteria)
This bacterium preys on people who have weak immune systems and is a leading cause of fatal lung infections among people with cystic fibrosis. The versatile bacterium lives almost anywhere and can use almost anything for food.

» Sequenced by: University of Washington Genome Center & PathoGenesis Corporation P. aeruginosa PA01 Abstract
» Related GNN article: The Pseudomonas aeruginosa genome: Ubiquitous bacterium sequenced
» Image: © James A. Sullivan, CELLS alive!
Pseudomonas putida (Bacteria)
One of nature's most versatile microbes, this bacterium lives in the soil. It could potentially be used to clean up pollutants in contaminated environments. It may also protect some plants from certain pests.

» Sequenced by: German Consortium and TIGR P. putida KT2440 Abstract
» Related GNN article: Versatile soil-dwelling microbe is mapped
» Image: © William Ghiorse, ASM MicrobeLibrary
Pseudomonas syringae (Bacteria)
This bacterium causes disease in many plants, including tomatoes and pears. It damages leaves and can stunt growth. But some strains help ice form at temperatures slightly above freezing and may have uses in artificial snow making.

» Sequenced by: TIGR, Cornell University, University of Nebraska, University of Missouri and Kansas State University
P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 Unpublished

» Image: Courtesy Thomas Zitter, Cornell University
Pyrobaculum aerophilum. Copyright K. O. Stetter & R. Rachel, University of Regensburg, Germany.
Pyrobaculum aerophilum (Archaea)
This “extremophile” can live at temperatures up to 104°C (219°F). The sequenced strain was isolated from a hot spring in Maronti Beach, Italy. It was the first genome to be completely sequenced by a graduate student.

» Sequenced by: University of California & California Institute of Technology P. aerophilum DC3000 Abstract
» Related GNN articles:
The first genome sequenced by a graduate student
A sequenced hyperthermophile: Pyrobaculum aerophilum
» Image: © K. O. Stetter & R. Rachel, University of Regensburg, Germany
Pyrococcus abyssi. Copyright CNRS Photothèque. Photograph by Daniel Prieur.
Pyrococcus abyssi (Archaea)
This microbe was isolated near a hot spring some 3,500 meters deep in the Southeast Pacific Ocean. The “extremophile” grows at temperatures near 103°C (217°F).

» Sequenced by: Genoscope P. abyssi GE5 (unpublished) reported on NCBI as completed February 13, 2002.
» Image: © CNRS Photothèque. Photograph by Daniel Prieur
Pyrococcus furiosis. Copyright Henry Aldrich.
Pyrococcus furiosus (Archaea)
Found in sand near some volcanoes, this microbe lives at temperatures above 100°C (212°F). The “extremophile” is also resistant to radiation. Its name means roughly means “the rushing fireball.”

» Sequenced by: University of Utah & University of Maryland P. furiosus DSM 3638 Abstract
» Image: © Henry Aldrich
Pyrococcus horikoshii. Courtesy NITE.
Pyrococcus horikoshii (Archaea)
This microbe was originally isolated near a hydrothermal vent at the Okinawa Trough in the Pacific Ocean in 1992. It prefers environments where the temperature is 98°C (208°F).

» Sequenced by: National Institute of Technology and Evaluation P. horikoshii OT3 Abstract
» Image: Courtesy NITE
Pyrolobus fumarii
Pyrolobus fumarii (Archaea)
Discovered near a hydrothermal vent at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean, this microbe thrives at some of the highest temperatures known to support life. It can survive 113°C (235°F). Its name roughly means “fire lobe of the chimney.”

» Sequenced by: Diversa and Celera Genomics
» Related GNN article: Heat resistant: The P. fumarii genome is sequenced
» Image: Courtesy Springer-Verlag
Ralstonia solanacearum. Courtesy C. Boucher and J. Vasse.
Ralstonia solanacearum (Bacteria)
This bacterium causes southern wilt, a common and often lethal plant disease. More than 200 plants are susceptible to the disease, including some ornamentals and vegetables. The bacterium can infect the roots of plants and destroy an entire crop.

» Sequenced by: Genoscope & INRA R. solanacearum GMI1000 Abstract
» Related GNN article: Scientists sequence the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum
» Image: Courtesy C. Boucher and J. Vasse
Rattus norvegicus (Eukaryota)
Rats have versions of nearly every gene known to cause disease in humans, and they have been used for decades to develop and test new drugs. The sequenced strain was the Brown Norway rat, a popular lab rat and also a pest and a pet worldwide.

» Sequenced by: The Rat Genome Sequencing Project Consortium R. norvegicus Abstract
» Related GNN article: Rat Genome Unveiled
» Image: Courtesy NHGRI
Rhodopirellula baltica (Bacteria)
This microbe floats on the surface of the ocean and emits a reddish sunscreen that protects it from ultraviolet light. It also lives underwater and in sediment. Its name means "small red pear of the Baltic Sea," which is where the bacterium was discovered more than 20 years ago.

» Sequenced by: Max Planck Institute of Marine Microbiology R. balitca (Formerly Pirellula sp. strain 1) Abstract
» Related GNN article: The Small Red Pear of the Sea
» Image: Courtesy Frank Oliver Glöeckner
Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Image courtesy Caroline Harwood.
Rhodopseudomonas palustris (Bacteria)
Commonly found in soil and water, this purple bacterium removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and produces hydrogen gas. A versatile microbe, it can live in the presence or absence of oxygen and utilizes a variety of energy sources, including sunlight.

» Sequenced by: the Joint Genome Institute Strain CGA009 Unpublished
» Image: Courtesy Caroline Harwood
Female brown dog tick. Courtesy Texas Department of Health.
Rickettsia conorii (Bacteria)
This bacterium lives in brown dog ticks and causes Mediterranean spotted fever. Like other types of Rickettsiae bacteria, it is a parasite that lives inside other cells and causes an illness that involves fever, delirium, and skin rashes.

» Sequenced by: Information Génétique & Structurale R. conorii Malish 7 Abstract
» Related GNN article: Insights into genome evolution: The sequence of Rickettsia conorii
» Image: Courtesy Texas Department of Health
Rickettsia typhi (Bacteria)
Often found in warm coastal regions where rats are a problem, this bacterium can be transmitted to people by rat fleas. It causes the disease murine typhus, which involves headaches, fevers, and rashes but is seldom fatal. The bacterium is also carried by some louses and cat fleas.

» R. typhi sequenced in 2004 by Baylor College of Medicine Abstract
» Image: Dr. David Walker, University Texas Medical Branch.
Attachment of rickettsiae to the surface of an endothelial cell. Copyright Vsevolod Popov and David H. Walker, ASM MicrobeLibrary.
Rickettsia prowazekii (Bacteria)
Responsible for millions of deaths over the course of human history, this bacterium causes typhus. It is named for two researchers who died while studying the disease, H.T. Ricketts and S.J.M. Prowazek.

» Sequenced by: University of Uppsala R. prowazekii  Madrid E Abstract
» Image: © Vsevolod Popov and David H. Walker, ASM MicrobeLibrary
Attachment of rickettsiae to the surface of an endothelial cell. Copyright Vsevolod Popov and David H. Walker, ASM MicrobeLibrary.
Rickettsia sibirica(Bacteria)
In parts of Russia, China, and Mongolia, this bacterium lives in ticks and causes North Asian tick fever. The disease is relatively mild and involves fevers, headaches, and rashes but is seldom fatal. The bacterium belongs to a family that includes the typhus pathogen, Rickettsia prowazekii.

» Sequenced by: University of Maryland School of Medicine; CDC & Agencourt R. siberica Unpublished
Scanning electron micrograph of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Courtesy Alan Wheals, University of Bath, UK.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Eukaryota)
Commonly known as baker’s yeast, this microscopic fungus has been used in baking for more than a century and in the laboratory by biologists for decades. In 1996 it became the third species, after two types of bacteria, to be sequenced. It has versions of many genes found in people.

» Sequenced by: International Consortium S. cerevisiae S288C Abstract
» Related GNN article: In yeast, tackling the problem of too many unknown genes
» Image: Courtesy Alan Wheals, University of Bath, UK.
Saccharopolyspora erythraea (Bacteria)
This bacterium produces an antibiotic called erythromycin that is used to treat pneumonia, bronchitis, and other infections. Pharmaceutical companies grow the bacteria in laboratories and harvest the antibiotics. This strain was sequenced by an Italian subsidiary of the French drug maker Aventis.

» Sequenced by: Aventis Bulk and MWG Biotech S. erythraea Press Release
» Image: Courtesy John Ward, University College, London
India ink stain of S. typhi. Courtesy J. Michael Miller, CDC.
Salmonella enterica (Bacteria)
This bacterium causes typhoid fever, a potentially fatal illness that affects 16 million people each year and causes 600,000 deaths. The bacterium has developed the ability to spread from the human intestine to the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. The strain CT18 is resistant to several drugs.

» Sequenced by: University of Wisconsin S. enterica Typhi Ty2 Abstract
Sanger Institute S. enterica Typhi CT18 Abstract
» Image: Courtesy J. Michael Miller, CDC
Salmonella typhimurium. Courtesy Institute of Food Research, UK.
Salmonella typhimurium (Bacteria)
This bacterium is a leading cause of gastrointestinal disease due to the consumption of infected meat that was not properly cooked. Reports of highly virulent strains that are resistant to multiple antibiotics have increased recently.

» Sequenced by: Washington University Consortium S. typhimurium LT2 Abstract
» Image: Courtesy Institute of Food Research, UK.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Courtesy Elspeth Stewart.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Eukaryota)
This yeast was originally isolated from East African millet beer a century ago, and part of its name comes from the Swahili word for beer, pombe. It has versions of many genes associated with human diseases, including cancer, cystic fibrosis, deafness, and diabetes.
» Sequenced by: International consortium (Sanger Institute, Cold Spring Harbor, NCBI) Abstract
» Related GNN article: Schizosaccharomyces pombe: Second yeast genome sequenced
» Image: Courtesy Elspeth Stewart
Shewanella oneidensis (Bacteria)
Found in soil and sediment worldwide, this bacterium alters the chemical structures of some metallic elements and compounds, including iron and uranium. The microbe is a potential tool for removing toxins from the environment, such as run-off from copper mines.

» Sequenced by: TIGR S. oneidensis MR-1 Abstract
» Related GNN article: Microbe that breaks down metals, S. oneidensis, is sequenced
» Image: Courtesy Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Shigella flexneri. Courtesy P. Sansonetti, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
Shigella flexneria (Bacteria)
A major cause of infant mortality in developing countries, this bacterium is responsible for more than a million deaths each year. Often found in water polluted with human feces, the bacterium can cause sudden and severe diarrhea, known as shigellosis.

» Sequenced by: University of Wisconsin S. flexneria serotype 2a 2457T Abstract
Microbial Genome Center S. flexneria 2a 301 Abstract
» Related GNN article: Infant mortality: New clues from the sequenced Shigella genome
» Image: Courtesy P. Sansonetti, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
S. meliloti cells. Courtesy of Stanford University.
Sinorhizobium meliloti (Bacteria)
This bacterium lives symbiotically on the roots of alfalfa plants and other legumes. It provides nitrogen for the plant and leaves behind excess nitrogen in the soil, potentially reducing the need for fertilizers.

» Sequenced by: MELILO EU Consortium S. meliloti 1021 Abstract
» Related GNN article: In symbiosis with alfalfa: The complex genome sequence of Sinorhizobium meliloti
» Image: Courtesy Stanford University
Staphylococcus aureus. Copyright James A. Sullivan, CELLS alive!
Staphylococcus aureus (Bacteria)
A leading source of infections among hospital patients, this bacterium causes a range of illnesses, from food poisoning to fatal pneumonia. Many strains are resistant to antibiotics. The microbe has acquired genes for virulence and resistance to drugs from other bacteria.

» Sequenced in 2001 by Juntendo University S. aureus N315 and S. aureus Mu50 Abstract
» Sequenced in 2002 by Juntendo University S. aureus MW2 Abstract
» Sequenced in 2004 by Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute S. aureus MRSA252 & S. aureus MSSA476 Abstract
» Image: © James A. Sullivan, CELLS alive!
Courtesy Wilma Ziebuhr.
Staphylococcus epidermidis (Bacteria)
This bacterium lives on human skin. It is usually harmless but can cause infections in wounds, particularly among hospital patients who have weak immune systems. Many infections have occurred where catheters are inserted.

» Sequenced by: Chinese National Human Genome Center at Shanghai and Medical Center of Fudan University S. epidermidis ATCC 12228 Unpublished
» Image: Courtesy Wilma Ziebuhr
Streptococcus agalactiae. Courtesy Michael J. Cieslewicz.
Streptococcus agalactiae (Bacteria)
This bacterium can cause life-threatening infections in newborns as they pass through the birth canal. It also preys on adults with chronic illnesses. Known as group B strep, the bacterium was first identified in cows in the 1930s, and how it made the leap to humans is a mystery.

» Sequenced by: TIGR S. agalactiae 2603 Abstract
» Related GNN article:
To Make a Vaccine, First Sequence a Genome: The fight against group B strep starts with its genome sequence
» Image: Courtesy Michael J. Cieslewicz
Streptococcus mutans (Bacteria)
The leading cause of tooth decay worldwide, this bacterium sticks to the surface of teeth and subsists on carbohydrates. It produces acid that causes cavities in teeth.

» Sequenced by: University of Oklahoma S. mutans UA159 Abstract
» Related GNN article: Fighting Cavities: Bacterium that causes tooth decay, S. mutans, is sequenced
Streptococcus pneumoniae. Courtesy Donald A. Morrison.
Streptococcus pneumoniae (Bacteria)
This bacterium causes pneumonia, blood infections, and meningitis. It was the third bacterium that lives in the human throat and nasal passages to be sequenced. Of the three, this one degrades the most sugars, which may give it a competitive advantage over the others.

» Sequenced by: TIGR S. pneumoniae TIGR4 Abstract
Eli Lilly S. pneumoniae R6 Abstract
» Related GNN article: Sugar Transporters and Foreign DNA: The sequenced Streptococcus pneumoniae genome
» Image: Courtesy Donald A. Morrison
Streptococcus pyogenes. Courtesy Vincent A. Fischetti, The Rockefeller University.
Streptococcus pyogenes (Bacteria)
Known as group A strep, this bacterium can cause many types of disease. Strep throat and impetigo are among the milder ones, while the more severe include toxic shock syndrome, rheumatic fever, and “flesh-eating” disease.

» Sequenced by: University of Oklahoma S. pyogenes M1 GAS Abstract
NIAID & University of Minnesota S. pyogenes MGAS8232 Abstract
Osaka University S. pyogenes SSI-1 Abstract
S. pyogenes strain MGAS10394 sequenced in 2004 by NIAID Abstract
» Related GNN articles:
Rheumatic fever bacterium sequenced: DNA evidence links two epidemics in Utah twelve years apart
Genome sequence of Streptococcus pyogenes, the flesh-eating bacterium
» Image: Courtesy Vincent A. Fischetti, The Rockefeller University
Streptococcus pyogenes. Courtesy Vincent A. Fischetti, The Rockefeller University.
Streptococcus thermophilus (Bacteria)
A microbe for dairy lovers, this bacterium is used to manufacture some yogurts and mozzarella cheeses. It is also sold as a dietary supplement that may improve digestion. Two strains were sequenced, one from yogurt made in France and the other from yogurt made in the United Kingdom.

» S. thermophilus CNRZ1066 and LMG13811 sequenced in 2004 by Institut National de al Recherche Agronomique Abstract
» Image: Courtesy Robert Hutkins, University of Nebraska
Streptomyces avermitilis (Bacteria)
This bacterium produces a compound that can be used to treat parasitic infections in livestock. The compound, called avermectin, has also been used to treat certain infections in people.

» Sequenced by: Kitasato University, University of Tokyo, NITE and NIID S. avermitilis MA-4680 Abstract
The Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences S. avermitilis ATCC31267 Abstract
» Related GNN article: Antibiotics from a microbe: The genome of an industrial organism
» Image: Courtesy J. Lindquist, Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin
Streptomyces coelicolor (Bacteria)
One of medicine's most important microbes, this bacterium and its relatives produce most of the natural antibiotics in use today, including tetracycline and erythromycin. The family of bacteria, called streptomycetes, also produces compounds that have anti-cancer properties.

» Sequenced by: Sanger Institute S. coelicolor A3(2) Abstract
» Related GNN article: Medicinal microbe Streptomyces coelicolor is sequenced
» Image: Courtesy David A. Hopwood, John Innes Centre, U.K.
Sulfolobus solfataricus. Courtesy Tony Phillips, Science@NASA
Sulfolobus solfataricus (Archaea)
Found in environments where the temperature is about 80°C (176°F), this microbe has been used to study various aspects of how cells grow. The sequenced strain was isolated from a sulfur hot spring near Naples, Italy.

» Sequenced by: Canadian & European Consortium S. solfataricus P2 Abstract
» Related GNN article: Life at very high temperatures: The genome of Sulfolobus solfataricus is sequenced
» Image: Courtesy Tony Phillips, Science@NASA
Beppu hot springs in Japan. Copyright Alicia Wagner Calzada.
Sulfolobus tokodaii (Archaea)
This microbe converts hydrogen sulfide to sulfate and may have uses in the treatment of wastewater. It prefers sulfuric and acidic environments where the temperature is 80°C (176°F). The sequenced strain was isolated from Beppu hot springs in Japan in 1983.

» Sequenced by: National Institute of Technology and Evaluation S. tokodaii 7 Abstract
» Related GNN article: Sulfolobus tokodaii: A genome from Japan
» Image: © Alicia Wagner Calzada
Synechococcus (Bacteria)
Among the most abundant organisms on the planet, these photosynthetic bacteria live in the open ocean. Some forms can swim through the water at speeds up to 25mm per second, despite their lack of external propelling devices. Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus bacteria account for two-thirds of the carbon fixation that occurs in the oceans.

» Sequenced by: Joint Genome Institute and Scripps Institution of Oceanography Synechococcus WH8102 Abstract
» Image: Courtesy Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Synechocystis. Courtesy Yasukazu Nakamura, The First Laboratory for Plant Gene Research, Kazusa DNA Research Institute.
Synechocystis (Bacteria)
This microbe is a cyanobacterium, which live in water and carry out photosynthesis. It is used in the laboratory by researchers who study aspects of photosynthesis.

» Sequenced by: Kazusa DNA Research Institute Synechocystis PCC 6803 Abstract
» Image: Courtesy Yasukazu Nakamura, The First Laboratory for Plant Gene Research, Kazusa DNA Research Institute

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